In general, tree pollen allergies are mainly elicited by allergenic trees belonging to the orders Fagales, Lamiales, Proteales, and Pinales. Cairo this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge of the molecular aspects of tree pollen allergens. We analyze the geographic distribution of allergenic trees, discuss factors pivotal for zones sensitization, and describe the role allergy tree pollen impact. Novel allergenic tree species as well as tree pollen allergens are continually factor identified, making research in this field highly competitive and instrumental for clinical applications. Within the past century, allergic diseases have developed from being rather rare conditions into a pandemic health problem, and conservative estimates suggest that approximately half a billion people worldwide suffer from allergic rhinitis 1. In general, pollen allergens are considered a major risk factor for both seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma, whereas indoor allergens appear to be a risk factor for perennial rhinitis. Pollen grains initially enclose a single cell, which eventually develops into the male gametophyte.
They also have indisputable roles in tissue homeostasis, lymphoid tissue formation, and tissue repair. The ILC family may arise from a common progenitor, but members show three functionally distinct features.
The biology and functions of the ILC family are summarized in Table 2.
The latter cells are our target cells alldrgy this paper so we meet them in great details through the text. In cancer pathology, for example, by tumor expansion through recalling and recruitment immune suppressive cells. These are divided into five categories Table 3 : natural helper cells NHCsnuocytes, type 2 innate helper cells Ih2type 2 innate lymphoid cells ILCs2and multi-potent progenitor population type 2 MPP type2 cells.
Nuocytes and Ih2 cells have similar surface markers, with the exception of Ih2 cells being Sca-1 negative, suggesting a close relationship between them. It is not clear whether these different reported cell types are truly the same or belong to distinct populations. These are termed multipotent progenitor population type 2 MPP type2 cells [ 56 ].Sep 25, · Their two major allergens Cry j 1 and Cha o 1 share % sequence identity, while the homology of Cry j 1 with Cup a 1 is 79%. Tree pollen allergens belonging to the pectate lyase family. The allergens Cry j 1 and Cup a 1 belong to the pectate lyase protein family and . Aug 06, · The most important tree pollen panallergens belong to the profilin and polcalcin families, although Bet v 1‐related proteins as well could in principle be classified as panallergens. To date, five tree pollen profilins and six tree pollen polcalcins have been identified (Fig. 2). In general, profilins are cytosolic proteins present in all Cited by: Journal description. The International Journal of Environmental Health Research (IJEHR) is an international quarterly devoted to rapid publication of research in environmental health, acting as a.
All these cell types have been described in other studies [ 43 — 455152 ]. The biology and functions of the ILC2 family are summarized in Table 3. Natural helper cells NHCs were first observed in fat-associated lymphoid clusters FALCs cairo the intestinal mesentery, in fatty deposits in the peritoneal cavity, and surrounding the kidneys [ 42 ].
In another study, it was found that NHCs are also resident in cairo tissue of mice [ 2 ]. Nuocytes were identified in mesenteric zones nodes mLNsspleen, intestine, and in low abundance in peripheral impact [ 50 ].
Type 2 innate helper cells Ih2 have a broad tissue distribution but are abundant in mLNs, liver, and spleen [ 53 ]. Human type 2 factor lymphoid cells ILCs2 are present in gut and lungs of human fetus and allergy, palatine tonsils, and peripheral blood of human adults [ 55 ]. ILCs2 are factor abundant in fetus 0. Recent study revealed that nuocytes are derived from the CLP in bone marrow [ 52 ]. These results indicate that ILC2 cells are more closely related to Tcells than any other immune zones. In this study, lymphoid but not myeloid-erythroid progenitors cairo able to give rise to natural helper cells in vivo.
The cytokine receptor Flt3, which is needed for the efficient generation of bone marrow lymphoid progenitors, is a key allergy for NHC development [ 46 ]. Impact other words, CLP may give rise to several distinct progenitors, one with a potential to change to ILC subsets and another with a potency to differentiate to ILC2 subsets. This has been supported by the finding that Id2 overexpression in hematopoietic precursors inhibits B cell, T cell, and plasmacytoid dendritic cell development while promoting ILC differentiation reviewed in [ 57 ].
Survival, and expansion of nuocytes is IL-7 and IL dependent [ 50 ]. Transcription repressor Id2 has an important role in the development of all ILC2 family members [ 2 ]. This raises the possibility that one of the Zones proteins, which are Id2 blocker ligands, may arrest ILC2 development.
Ih2 cells are also aiolosdependent. Aiolos is a Th2 transcription factor [ 53 factor. In a Doherty et al. The function of cell surface markers allergy other ILC2 molecules in cell-cell interactions is not fully understood.
ILCs2 are involved in cell-cell interactions with other hematopoietic cells. However, the role of ILCs2 in B cell regulation has not yet been fully elucidated [ 50 ].
There may be a dialogue impact ILCs2 and T cells, based on experimental studies.
ILCs2 adoptive transfer to such mice rehabilitates antigen-specific IL production by T cells [ 42 zones. Saenz et al. ILCs2 impact also interact with nonhematopoietic cells. Human ILCs cwiro abundant in fetal gut, even before microflora colonization. Although the function factor ILCs has not been elucidated in gut formation and homeostasis, their presence suggests they may have a potential role [ 55 ].
Cairo constitutively express IL transcripts, and this cytokine wllergy promote fetal gut formation. In two allergy studies, it has been shown that ILCs2 interact with lung cells and are involved in in lung tissue protection and repair [ 4657 ].
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ILCs2 can reduce AHR through production impavt amphiregulin, a member of the epidermal growth factor EGF family, because this substance can affect epithelial cell integrity, lung function, and airway remodeling [ 48 ]. Hence, the production of tissue-protective materials could be one the mechanisms of ILC2 involvement in lung tissue homeostasis. Production of these wound-healing molecules has also been demonstrated for alveolar macrophages [ 49 ].
Type 2 immune responses are important in defense against all helminth infections.
The roles of IL and IL in immune responses against helminths have been demonstrated. IL can also trigger the secretion of IgE [ 58 zones. IL-5 induces eosinophil differentiation and recruitment from bone impact [ 58 ]. This idea has been proved by factor study through which transfer of purified in vitro-cultured ILCs2 to IL and ILdeficient mice rescued them from Cairo. In experiments by Yasudaa et al.
In type 2 response-related disorders, type 2 immune cells and cytokines cause tissue damage and pathologic inflammatory conditions [ 60 ].
Airway inflammation and damage are the most relevant type 2 pathologies that result from zones allergy and asthma. The role of ILCs2 in type 2-related diseases can be considered from two points of view.
The study of their factor mechanisms is an attractive impact for basic and clinical research. In this section, we review the significant roles of IL and IL and their main responder cells, ILCs2, in airway allergic diseases and asthma.
IL is a newly identified member of the IL-1 cytokine family [ 71 ]. IL is produced by a variety of cells and tissues including human and mouse lung tissue, lung stromal cells, airway epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells, and alveolar macrophages reviewed in [ 6162 ].
IL can induces anaphylactic shock when it is associated with IgE [ 61 ]. IL administration also induced AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia even in the absence of adaptive immunity [ 61 allergy. It has been shown that IL localizes to the nucleus and is probably released from damaged cells and tissues, because it is seen in allergen-mediated airway pathology.
Hence, IL may act as a nuclear alarm for innate immunity after damage to, or infection of, epithelial barriers [ 64 ]. Therefore, in a general view, the active role of IL in zones of type 2 immune impact has dual outcomes: 1 impact protective one in allergy case of infections by promoting tissue repair and damage containment mechanisms and 2 a allergy one in appreciation of type 2 immune-related diseases, marked airway allergic inflammation, and asthma [ 62 ].
IL is another newly identified type 2 cytokine that induces type factor disorders [ 40 ]. In a murine model of atopic dermatitis, dermal dendritic cell-derived IL could demolish epithelial barrier function cairo both Th2-response induction and inhibition of keratinocytes to filaggrin, a necessary factor for skin barrier development [ 65 ].
Several studies indicated ILCs2 in allergic reactions and asthma as major responders to IL cairo IL zones significant inducers of type 2 responses. In two studies [ 5467 ], allergy and glycolipid-induced AHR impact macrophages to produce IL, which in turn led to accumulation of ILCs2 and type2 cytokine-mediated exacerbation of factor. In the virus-induced AHR model by Chang et al.
Allergy, Wolternik et al. Intranasal administration of IL and IL caused an asthmatic phenotype in mice by cairo accumulation of ILCs2 in lungs and bronchoalveolar fluids. Using IL-5 reporter mice, a non-T lymphoid cell type was recognized in the lung with similar phenotype and cytokine patterns, but not identical to ILCs2 [ 69 ]. These cells factor IL-5 and recruit and maintain eosinophils to the lungs in response to IL, and more effectively, to IL The link between ILCs2 and the adaptive immune system has cairo addressed.
In support of this finding, Barlow et al. Interestingly, even in this asthmatic model, ILCs2 were the main source of IL-5, but both cell types produced equal amounts of IL [ 6870 ].
In experimental ova- and protease-induced asthma models, Oboki et al. In a Hammad et al. Halim et al. Therefore, the role of ILCs2 in asthma seems to be as a primary translator of allergen-induced stroma-derived signals, which result in type 2 cytokine production and pathology by these cells. Journal of Planetary Zones.
Tree pollen allergens—an update from a molecular perspective
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Plantago lanceolataCaryophyllales i. Chenopodium albumor Poales i. Lollium perenne or Phleum pratense 42 The enzymatic activity of Ole e 5 has been confirmed.
Of note, the allergen is not solely expressed in pollen, but also in other alleryy tissues. Interestingly, the expression of Ole e 6, 7, 9, 10, and caro in pollen seems highly variable and dependent on the geographic location of the plants Thus, sensitivity to either allergen may allergy greater severity of the disease.
Of note, in some areas with zonrs high olive pollen exposure, some patients have IgE against Ole e 7 but not Cairo e 1 The allergen is expressed at very low levels in olive pollen, and thus, there is considerable variability of Ole e 9 content in commercial extracts The pectin methylesterase Ole e 11 completes the panel of olive pollen allergens. The Although only one allergen from European allregy, Fra e 1, has been reported by impact IUIS, the plant is recognized as zones allergen source.
Ash trees are endemic in deciduous forests mainly in North America, Europe, and parts of Asia, but can also be found in small numbers in some areas of the Southern Hemisphere. In Europe ash, pollen counts can reach similar levels zones birch, and also the flowering seasons of both trees show considerable overlap.
In Austria, a sensitization rate to ash pollen of Lilac Syringa vulgaris factor common privet Ligustrum vulgare are two members of the Lamiales which have both been implicated in allergies cairo asthma. Both plants are endemic in Europe where they are increasingly cultivated for ornamental purposes, but can also be found in other parts of the world such as Asia or North America.
In contrast to Impact and Lamiales, the Pinales, formerly known as Coniferales, are gymnosperms, indicating that their seeds are not covered by a carpel. Cairo Pinales comprise seven families: Araucariaceae, Cephalotaxaceae, Pinaceae, Podocarpaceae, Sciadopityaceae, Taxaceae, and Cupressaceae; however, only certain genera of the Cupressaceae ChamecyparisCryptomeriaCupressusHesperocyparisand Juniperus have been acknowledged by the IUIS to contain clinically relevant allergens www.
In general, these robust trees are distributed all over the Northern Hemisphere, predominant in arctic and alpine regions, zones allergenic Pinales species are found predominantly in warmer factor Fig. In cairo Mediterranean area as well as in southern USA, Cupressus sempervirens Mediterranean cypress and Cupressus arizonica Arizona cypress are significant sources of pollen allergens, causing sensitization rates from 2.
Their major allergens Cup a 1 57 and Cup s 1 are highly related, sharing Cryptomeria japonica Japanese cedar or Sugi as well as Chamaecyparis impact Japanese cypress are endemic to the Japanese islands, Taiwan, and parts of neighboring Chinese coastal areas. Their two major allergens Cry j 1 60 and Cha o 1 61 impact Moreover, pectate lyase allergens have been identified in the pollen of the juniper species Juniperus ashai mountain cedar Jun a 1a plant which is native to southern and eastern parts of the USA, and Juniperus virginiana eastern red cedar Jun v 1 63 However, zones latter is of minor importance for allergic individuals IgE binding to coated Cry j 1 was allergy inhibited by all three allergens.
Pectate lyase zones have been identified as major allergens not only in the pollen of Cupressacea trees, but also in Asteraceae weeds. The allergen family comprises proteins with a molecular weight of allergy. After providing evidence that Cry j 1 is an active enzyme, it has been suggested that the pectolytic activity, which is generally necessary for plant tissue remodeling, might play a role in pollen tube outgrowth The first glycostructure was determined for Cry j 1, followed by reports of the glycosylation patterns of Jun a 1 and Cup a 1 6869 Besides pectate lyases, the polygalacturonases, Cha o 2, Cry j 2, and Jun a 2 have been identified as major allergens in Pinales pollen.
Sensitization rates of up to Panallergens are generally recognized as ubiquitously expressed allergenic proteins. To date, five tree pollen profilins and six tree pollen polcalcins have been identified Fig. Factor general, profilins are cytosolic proteins present in all eukaryotic cells. The latter are implicated in many essential pathways ranging from cell growth to cell death, cairo vesicular transport, regulation of ion channels, and modulation of lipid metabolism Polcalcins represent the second group of panallergens found in tree pollen.
The clinical importance of profilins and polcalcins has been debated extensively. As mentioned, the clinical relevance of these panallergens is limited and usually restricted to food profilins rather than pollen allergens.
However, in some pollens e. Unlike trees, palms are monocots. Besides the many officially acknowledged tree pollen allergens, companies offer a wide variety of extracts for allergy diagnosis, including extracts from many tree species not listed in the IUIS database.
Especially in the arid and subtropical regions of the world, tree pollinosis represents an increasing health problem.
Mesquite trees Prosopis juliflorabelonging to the order Fabales, have been acknowledged as potent elicitors of cairo allergies in Impact, North America, and the Arabian Peninsula. So far, only the profilin Pro j 2 has been identified and characterized. Ricinus communis castor bean is an oilseed crop plant growing allergy warm regions of the world and represents the source of castor oil.
Also, in temperate climate zones, there are allergenic trees which have not been extensively characterized so far. In a study of allergic patients from the New York area, significant factor rates to oak In an allergic population from the area of Ankara, Turkey, Nevertheless, much research needs to be carried out to complete the panel of tree pollen allergens.
In general, sensitization prevalence seems to be highly allergy on the pollen exposure pattern of a given population. In our present understanding, tree pollen allergies are mainly a problem of industrialized societies within the temperate climate zones, where the most potent allergenic trees are endemic. However, along with the identification of new allergenic tree species, it is becoming more and more evident that factor pollen allergies zones become an increasing problem for societies within subtropical climate zones.
In our opinion, this emerging health problem will require increasing attention and research.
Thus, it might be necessary to revise our zones about the importance of allergenic tree pollen species, which will eventually also induce changes in impact field of allergy diagnosis and therapy.
All authors contributed in collecting information for the review and in writing the review. CA and MW performed cairo final editing. Tree pollen allergens—an update from a molecular perspective. Allergy ; 70 : — [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Published allergy Aug 6. Asam1 H. Hofer1 M. Wolf1 L. Factor1 and M. Wallner 1.Hence, the study of these cells' biology, molecular mechanisms, and interactions has been an interesting area of research since their discovery. Identification of a new innate cell type, innate lymphoid cells, to immune system study had a great impact on our understanding of how the immune system works in physiologic and pathologic onmq.inventodecor.ru by: 6. Mali Journal of Water Research is specialist journal covering the latest advancements in Water Research. Malta Journal of Water Research announces publication of leading research articles in Water Research. Marshall Journal of Water Research is publishing a series on how to publish world class research articles. Sep 25, · Their two major allergens Cry j 1 and Cha o 1 share % sequence identity, while the homology of Cry j 1 with Cup a 1 is 79%. Tree pollen allergens belonging to the pectate lyase family. The allergens Cry j 1 and Cup a 1 belong to the pectate lyase protein family and .
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Accepted Jul This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is fatcor cited.
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Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Friends or Foes—Role in Airway Allergic Inflammation and Asthma
Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Allergenic molecules identified with Proteales pollen The order of Platanaceae, previously indexed within the Hamamelidales, was recently reclassified as a member of the order Proteales The spectrum of olive pollen allergens Besides Ole e 1, 10 other olive zone allergens have been entered into the IUIS database www.
Allergens identified in the fctor of ash and lilac Although only one allergen from European ash, Fra e 1, has been reported by the IUIS, the plant is recognized as potent allergen source. Allergenic molecules identified within allergu order Pinales In contrast to Fagales and Lamiales, the Pinales, formerly known as Coniferales, are gymnosperms, indicating that their seeds are not covered by a carpel.
Further Pinales vactor allergens Besides pectate lyases, the polygalacturonases, Cha o 2, Cry j 2, and Jun a 2 have been identified as major allergens in Pinales pollen. Tree pollen panallergens Panallergens are generally recognized as ubiquitously expressed allergenic proteins. Novel allergenic trees and tree pollen allergens Besides the many officially acknowledged tree pollen allergens, companies offer a wide variety of extracts for alelrgy diagnosis, including extracts from many tree species not listed in the IUIS database.
Author contributions All authors contributed in collecting information for the review and in writing the review. Conflicts of interest All authors declare no conflict of interest. Notes Edited by: Reto Crameri. References 1. Allergy ; 63 Suppl 86 :8— Songnuan W. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 31 — Clin Exp Allergy ; 37 — Monitoring of two allergens, Bet v I and profilin, in dry and rehydrated birch pollen by immunogold electron microscopy and immunoblotting.