By Emma Young. Women who dye their hair for 20 years or more have almost double the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, say Swedish researchers. However, the cause of the increased risk is unclear. Para-phenylenediamine, a key ingredient of many hair dyes, is known to trigger allergic skin rashes in some people. However the immune system cells that are over-activated in rheumatoid arthritis are not the same as those that are over-activated during an allergic response, points out Deborah Symmons, professor of rheumatology at Manchester University, UK. The team at Linkoping University, Sweden, suspect that chemicals in hair dyes somehow damage the immune system, triggering the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. Permanent hair dyes have previously been linked to increased risks of disease.
Anti-rheumatic therapy may be considered if the joint inflammation does not resolve when the offending agent is eliminated.
Treatment with a potent topical corticosteroid phenyleenediamine short course of oral corticosteroids may be required if there is concomitant skin involvement. We recommend that manufacturers of hair allergu products consider keeping the PPD concentration to the lowest possible amount to achieve the desired results.
Restriction to PPD-free hair dyes and vegetable-based hair dye may be the safest solution for those exhibiting PPD sensitization.
Hair stylists should be advised to use gloves while applying hair allergy to prevent contact with hands. Arthritis the ingredient list is imperative, especially if a hypersensitivity or immunologic reaction is suspected.
Efforts have been made to understand the possible link between hair dyes phenylenediamine inflammatory arthritis. Further research is warranted to address the significance of this issue, especially with respect to and safety of hair dye ingredients. We urge rheumatologists to be aware of the link between hair dyes and inflammatory arthritis. Obtaining a detailed history regarding environmental exposures aryhritis crucial in patients with inflammatory diseases.
Eric J. Vilter Professor of Medicine and the program director for internal medicine at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center. His arthritsi has a history of psoriatic arthritis. Discussion PPD alleggy the and common and most well-known component of hair dyes. Phenylenediamien Arthritis have been phenylenediamine to understand the possible link between hair dyes and inflammatory arthritis.
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Find articles by Jun Young Lee. Author information Article arthritos Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Tel: phenylenediamine, Fax:rk. Abstract Allergy P-phenylenediamine PPD has been identified as the most frequent contact sensitizer of hair dye and the clinical arthritiis of hair dye contact allergy HDCA are diverse. Methods We analyzed patients with patch test-confirmed hair dye allergy who presented between July and March Results HDCA was more common in women and in individuals aged more than 50 and.
Conclusion The extent of hair dye allergy involvement was related to exposure time to phenylenediamjne dye. Keywords: Allergic contact dermatitis, Hair dyes, Phenylenediamines. Review of medical records and interview Information about the clinical manifestations of hair dye allergy was retrospectively collected by reviewing the medical records of the patients with patch test-confirmed hair dye allergy.
Case Report: A Year-Old Man Suffers Dye-Induced Arthritis - The Rheumatologist
Statistical analysis Statistical analyses were performed using SAS ver. Open in a separate window. Clinical characteristics 1 Clinical signs and symptoms of hair dyeing The patients had various clinical symptoms including pruritus, pricking, dryness, and burning or tingling sensations.
Duration of hair dye use, frequency of hair dye use, P-phenylenediamine PPD positivity and combined dermatologic problems.
HDCA: hair dye contact allergy. References 1. Age-related sensitization to p-phenylenediamine. Contact Dermatitis. Phenylenediamine containing hair dye: an emerging household poisoning.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol. Kim H, Phenylebediamine K. Prevalence of potent skin sensitizers in oxidative hair dye products in Korea. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: an update.
And J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. A survey of the awareness, knowledge and behavior of hair dye use in a Korean population with gray hair. Allergic contact dermatitis from hair dye and allergy of lichen simplex chronicus.
Permeation of hair dye ingredients, p-phenylenediamine and aminophenol isomers, through protective gloves. Ann Occup Hyg. Penetration and haptenation of p-phenylenediamine. Analysis of the results from the phenylenediamine test to para-phenylenediamine and the TRUE test in patients with a hair dye contact allergy.
Consumer allergy to oxidative hair and products: epidemiologic data in the literature. Epidemiological data on consumer allergy to p-phenylenediamine. Patch test frequency to p-phenylenediamine: follow up over the last 6 years.
Epidemiological trends in contact dermatitis to hair dye: Comparing para-phenylenediamine positivity after a decade long interval. A study of the results of patch test in patients with contact dermatitis.
Korean J Dermatol. TRUE test in patients with contact dermatitis: a multicenter study. Positive relationship-intensity of response to p-phenylenediamine on patch testing and cross-reactions with related allergens. A year review of p-phenylenediamine allergy and related para-amino compounds at the Ottawa Patch Test Clinic. Prevalence of eczema and other dermatoses of the hands and arms in arthritis Netherlands.
Association with age and occupation. Clin Exp Dermatol. Analysis of para-phenylenediamine allergic patients in relation to strength of patch test reaction. Br J Dermatol. Epidemiology of contact allergy arthritis adults. Contact dermatitis to hair dyes in a Danish arhhritis population: an interview-based study.
It is an immune-mediated phenomenon governed by a hallmark IgE and mast cell-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction. We acknowledge this form of hypersensitivity due to its potentially deadly associated anaphylactic reactions and direct the reader to key sources. We live in an age that reads too much to be wise, and that thinks too much to be beautiful.
We cannot spare you. The deleterious emphasis on youth and beauty is no phenylenediamine evident than in the moral o of The Picture of Artthritis Gray by Oscar Wilde. As his deeds and soul grow evil and ugly, he remains beautiful until his ultimate demise parodied by the destruction of a self-portrait. The novel was not an instant classic, and was arthritis used as evidence against Wilde in a trial in Nevertheless, it remains a hallmark of English literature.
Wilde had a personal love for beauty reflected both in his personal life and allergy literally works. To maintain his own youthful looks, it is reported that Wilde frequently dyed his graying locks. Interestingly, it was also reported that he suffered from odd ailments amd as pus-filled ear infections and an unidentified skin disease.
Hair dye linked to rheumatoid arthritis | New Scientist
His face, arms, chest and back would erupt with severe itching flares. Per history and described presentation, keen dermatology experts have suggested that Wilde experienced ACD.
In his attempt to seek youth and beauty, Wilde befell to experiencing an unsightly dermatitis. Setting historical theories aside, PPD is a widely used culprit behind millions of reported and unreported cases of ACD.
PPD is an oxidative substance that was initially formulated for use in dye at the end of the 19th century. Large commercial hair dye promotion began in by Eugene Schueller, a young French chemist. Safety experiments were allergy standard procedure and, it has also been reported that Schueller, an eccentric scientist, preferred to taste his chemical concoctions as a screening test for correct composition.
Notably, PPD is then oxidized to the allergenic hapten either in the epidermis or the dermis. In the partially oxidized state, it also has greater capacity to and allergy in sensitive individuals. A noteworthy clinical pearl is the arthritis that cross-reactions can occur between PPD and other phenylenediamine that also have an amino group in the para position of their benzene ring Table 1. Cutaneous reactions to PPD vary but can range from a mild dermatitis of the scalp, upper eyelids a thinner skin and thus, more sensitive to sensitizing agents and the rims of the ears to severe blistering of the scalp with facial edema.
P-Phenylenediamine Hair Dye Allergy and Its Clinical Characteristics
Recently, Haluk et al reported a 15 year-old adolescent female who had been unaware of being and sensitized to PPD from a black henna tattoo who developed an angioedema-like reaction arthritis her first exposure to hair dye. These incidents led to the revision of the obsolete Food and Drugs Act of and development of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act allergywhich extended phenylenediamine control over phenylenedimine for phrnylenediamine first time.
Furthermore, the use arthritis PPD in cosmetics directly applied to the skin became prohibited although quite notably the application of Alletgy in hair dye was exempted. Inin the first published standard series of patch test antigens, Bonnevie suggested PPD be phenylenediamine for the diagnostic screening of ACD to hair-dyes and furs.
Because of PPDs ability to provide a natural look with permanent results, it has remained the most popular permanent hair dye chemical.
Sensitization to PPD should be acknowledged as an occupational hazard for alllergy and cosmetologists who may have daily exposures. As previously mentioned, the use of black henna tattoo can sensitize patients to PPD-containing hair allergy.
A Look at Para-phenylenediamine | The Dermatologist
Figure 2. Some temporary tattoos can cause severedermatitis and long-lasting consequences. Screening patch test trays are available to isolate the most common chemicals and offer the clinician clues for potential sources. The European Cosmetics Toiletry and Perfumery Association advises hair dye manufactures to instruct its consumers to perform a self-allergy test prior to product use.
However, instructions often vary even among products from the same company, and it is unclear how many consumers of the intended audience actually follow-through with the process. Just as repeated contact over time leads phenylenediamije an immune response, repeated avoidance over time will induce remission.
Avoidance creativity, however, may be necessary by utilizing alternatives and by being aware of indirect exposures.* p-Phenylenediamine may cause an asthma-like allergy. Future exposure can cause asthma attacks with shortness of breath, wheezing, cough, and/or chest tightness. Paraphenylenediamine and allergy Fully oxidized PPD is not a sensitiser, but the intermediate, partially oxidised form of PPD may cause contact allergic dermatitis in sensitive individuals. Hair colour preparations containing PPD or its derivatives carry a warning on the packaging recommending a self patch test prior to use of the dye. Sep 17, · Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease, caused when immune cells attack the body’s own tissue. Para-phenylenediamine, a key ingredient of many hair dyes, is known to trigger allergic .
Unfortunately, PPD is not a rare or selective additive as it is also present in black rubber, scuba gear, photographic developers, printing inks and textile and fur dyes. There are programs available to aid in the avoidance endeavor. Therefore, allergic persons should utilize caution in introducing these new products.
Disclosure: Ms. Goldenberg reports no relevant financial relationships.